Vanstophorst v. Maryland, 2 U.S. (2 Dall.) 401 (1791), was the first case docketed with the United States Supreme Court. Although the court agreed to hear and decide the case, the suit was settled before oral arguments. Collet v. Collet was the first appellate case docketed with the court. West v. Barnes was the first case decided by the court.
In the case, the Van Staphorst brothers lent money to the State of Maryland during the Revolutionary War era. Maryland refused to pay back the loan according to the terms the Van Staphorst brothers demanded. After the threat of Supreme Court litigation, the parties finally settled with each other.